Aurel Stein
  The Sanskritist
  Manuscript Treasures
  Kashmiri Scholarship
  Interface of Scholarship
  The Adopted Home
  Unfinished Tasks
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Supported by:
  Heritage Lottery Fund, Cambridge.
  Bodelian Library, Oxford.
  Nityanand Shastri Library Collection, Delhi.
  Kashmir Bhavan Centre, Luton.
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Archaeology of old Kashmir
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On way back towards Devasar, he inspected the ruins near the village of Naru.

Towards Vernag lay another small temple near a spring which according to Stein “was restored and reconstructed about35 years ago by Netar Kotwal the Tehsildar of Shahbad.”

From the information given by the priest Stein learnt that the spring bore the name of Ardhanaresvara. Half a mile away Stein saw another spring called Sveda Nag. Here also he found shattered ruins of a large temple. It was yet again the scarcity of time that prevented Stein to make a closer exploration of the ruins.

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Many Pandits at Ver Nag spring

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     Ruins of Temple, Tapar
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Group of Pandits circumambulating the
Ver Nag spring

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Rampore, Jehlum Valley

Moving further down the hills at Shahbad and Devasar, Stein reached Gudar on 26 September, 1891.Here he identified Hastisela as mentioned in the Rajatarangini to be the neighbourhood village of Astihel. Two miles above Gudar lay the Godavari spring.

Other Nags around this area named Gautam Nag, Gayatri Nag and Kali Nag too were visited by Stein. From Gudar he marched via Vuttu to Sedav and from there to Hirapur at the entrance of Pir Panchal Pass where Stein inspected some “positions of historical significance”. Proceeding up the Pass he arrived at a place on which stood a fort built under Pathan rule. Here the streams of Rupri and Pir Panchal Passes met.

Upward here he moved to reach Aliabad Serai after trekking the stiff mountain-side of Hastivanj. At Hirapur, Stein could not locate any fort but some distance above the Serai of Hirapur he passed through the road called Tlahi- Daravaya which according to him was a gate of an old city.

On his return from Hirapur to Srinagar he visited the villages of Degam and Shupiyan. At the neighbouring Kapalamochan spring he found some sculpted stone fragments with Sanskrit inscriptions of which only few letters were legible.

The villages of Ballapur and Kalampur were visited on road to Raimu where existed an old pilgrim place of Dhana Nag “which rose in a stone lined basin.” Three miles further Stein reached the gushing spring in the village Guas. The village of Gudasuth at some distance in the west of Vabator was the last station of the tour.

In the report submitted to Raja Amar Singh, Aurel Stein made a strong recommendation for the preservation and protection of the Vangath ruins.

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Corner of the cloister of the Avantipur Temple
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